香港夜明珠开奖现场

文章来源:中国科学技术大学    发布时间: 2019-03-21 22:39  【字号:      】

香港夜明珠开奖现场

  原标题:感觉时间越过越快?恭喜你,变老了!

  随着年龄的增长,人脑获取和处理图像的速度在不断放缓,在同一时间段内能处理的图像减少,从而感觉时间似乎过得更快了。

  有没有觉得,随着年龄的增长,时间过得越来越快了。小时候40分钟的课堂让人感觉度秒如年,怎么等也等不来下课铃声响的那一刻;而如今一眨眼嗖地一下一年过去了。

  最近杜克大学的一项物理学研究给出了一个新的解释,没错,你没看错,就是让谢耳朵如痴如醉的那个物理学。

  杜克大学机械工程学教授阿德里安·贝扬(Adrian Bejan)表示,不同年龄的人感受到明显的时间差异,是由于随着年龄的增长,人脑获取和处理图像的速度在不断放缓。这项研究结果于3月18日发表在由剑桥大学出版社出版的《欧洲评论》上。

  “People are often amazed at how much they remember from days that seemed to last forever in their youth,” said Bejan。 “It‘s not that their experiences were much deeper or more meaningful, it’s just that they were being processed in rapid fire。”

  贝扬说:“人们常常惊讶地发现,他们记得很小的时候发生的事,那些事仿佛是永远嵌在他们的记忆中不会遗忘了。”“这并不是说那些经历在记忆中更深刻或更有意义,而是因为那时(大脑)对信息的加工处理速度更快。”

  ▲ It‘s spring already? Physics explains why time flies as we age (via spacedaily.com)

  贝扬将这一现象归结为人体老化过程中的物理变化。随着人们的生长发育,体内的神经和神经元网络会越来越成熟,也会越来越复杂,从而导致信号传输到大脑的路径更长。而当这些路径也开始老化时,信号传递会受到更大的阻碍。如此一来,人们获取并处理图像的速度也就越来越慢。

  This is evidenced by how often the eyes of infants move compared to adults, noted Bejan - because infants process images faster than adults, their eyes move more often, acquiring and integrating more information。

  贝扬指出,这一点可以从婴儿转动眼睛的频率得到佐证。与成年人相比,婴儿处理图像的速度要快得多,他们的眼睛也转动得更频繁,由此获得和整合的信息更多。

  ▲ It‘s spring already? Physics explains why time flies as we age (via spacedaily.com)

  对老年人来说,在相同的时间内处理的图像更少,从而感觉时间过得更快了。

  ‘The human mind senses time changing when the perceived images change,’ Bejan said。 ‘The present is different from the past because the mental viewing has changed, not because somebody’s clock rings。 Days seemed to last longer in your youth because the young mind receives more images during one day than the same mind in old age。’

  贝扬说:“当感知到的图像发生变化时,人类的大脑就会感觉到时间的变化。”“现在不同于过去,是因为人们的心理视角发生了变化,而不是因为某人的生物钟变化了。在你年轻的时候,日子似乎更长,一天内获取的图像信息会比你年老后的要多。”

  The end result is that, because older people are viewing fewer new images in the same amount of actual time, it seems to them as though time is passing more quickly。

  最终的结果就是,在同样的一段时间内,越年老看到的新图像越少,对他们来说,时间似乎过得更快了。

  ▲ Why time seems to fly by as we age: ‘Rapid fire’ abilities of the young brain allow us to process more information during youth, causing the days to seem longer earlier in life (via dailymail)

  这么一说似乎是有点道理的。想想年轻的时候,一天之内可以购物、唱K、打游戏,上午见一拨朋友,下午见另一拨,晚上还能再组个串局。而如今,只是到楼下的便利店走一圈就已耗光了洪荒之力。不光是脑子,体力也只允许我一天处理一件事,不能再多了。

  实际上,除了贝扬教授给出的“图像处理量”这一解释外,之前也有一些研究试图探寻时间越过越快的原因。

  One idea is a gradual alteration of our internal biological clocks。 The slowing of our metabolism as we get older matches the slowing of our heartbeat and our breathing。 Children’s biological pacemakers beat more quickly, meaning that they experience more biological markers (heartbeats, breaths) in a fixed period of time, making it feel like more time has passed。

  一种说法是我们体内的生物钟在逐渐改变。随着年龄的增长,新陈代谢变慢了,心跳和呼吸也随之减慢。而儿童的心跳更快,这意味着他们在一段固定时间内感受到更多的生理活动(心跳、呼吸),使他们感觉度过了更多的时间。

  Another theory suggests that the passage of time we perceive is related to the amount of new perceptual information we absorb。 With lots of new stimuli our brains take longer to process the information so that the period of time feels longer。 This would help to explain the “slow motion perception” often reported in the moments before an accident。 The unfamiliar circumstances mean there is so much new information to take in。

  另一种理论认为,我们所感知的时间流逝与我们所吸收的新信息量有关。随着新刺激的增加,大脑需要更长的时间来处理这些信息,这样人们会感觉同一段时间更长了。知道这一点,就能明白为什么有人在事故发生时会有“慢动作感觉”。不熟悉的环境意味着大脑要消化更多的新信息。

  。。。。。。

  The theory goes that the older we get, the more familiar we become with our surroundings, the faster time seems to run, and generally, this familiarity increases with age。 

  还有一种理论认为,人越老对周围环境越熟悉,时间似乎就越快,而且一般来说,这种熟悉度随着年龄的增长而增加。

  ▲ Why time seems to go by more quickly as we get older (via theconversation.com)

  不过这三条理论都被英国巴斯大学的数理生物学老师克里斯蒂安·耶茨(Christian Yates)一一否定了。他提出我们应该从占比的角度来衡量,即每一段时间在我们经历过的总时间中占比是多少。

  To a two-year-old, a year is half of their life, which is why it seems such an extraordinary long period of time to wait between birthdays when you are young。 

  对于一个两岁的孩子来说,一年是他们生命的一半,这就是为什么在你年幼的时候,总会觉得要等好久才能迎来一次生日。

  To a ten-year-old, a year is only 10% of their life, (making for a slightly more tolerable wait), and to a 20-year-old it is only 5%。 On the logarithmic scale, for a 20-year-old to experience the same proportional increase in age that a two-year-old experiences between birthdays, they would have to wait until they turned 30。 Given this view point it’s not surprising that time appears to accelerate as we grow older。

  对于一个十岁的孩子来说,一年只是他们生命的10%,(这使得他们对等待的容忍度稍高);而对于一个20岁的人来说,一年只是5%。在对数刻度上,2岁孩子感受一年的时间长度,20岁的人要等10年后30岁的时候才能感受到。从这个角度来看,随着年龄的增长,时间似乎在加速,也就不足为奇了。

  ▲ Why time seems to go by more quickly as we get older (via theconversation.com)

  不论是哪个理论更有说服力,可以肯定的一点是:随着年龄的增长,时间的确是越过越快的。所以,如果你感受到了时间在变快,恭喜你,和主页君一起加入老龄大军吧,咱广场上不见不散!

  文:A君

  



(责任编辑:钦黎明)

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